Menulis Tanpa Menjiplak, Mungkinkah?

Menulis Tanpa Menjiplak, Mungkinkah?
Oleh Hernowo

Secara bahasa, dalam Kamus Besar Bahasa Indonesia (edisi 1995, halaman 416, lajur kiri), menjiplak berarti (1) menggambar atau menulis garis-garis gambaran atau tulisan yang telah tersedia (dengan menempelkan kertas kosong pada gambar atau tulisan yang akan ditiru); (2) mencontoh atau meniru (tulisan, pekerjaan orang lain); (3) mencuri karangan orang lain dan mengakui sebagai karangan sendiri; (4) mengutip karangan orang lain tanpa seizin penulisnya.

Dalam artikel menariknya, “Orang Pintar Plagiat” (Kompas edisi Selasa, 20 April 2010), Rhenal Kasali dengan tegas menyatakan bahwa tradisi menjiplak sama dengan tradisi mencuri. Tradisi buruk ini, tambah Rhenald Kasali, akan mengakibatkan suatu bangsa menjadi malas berpikir, tidak menciptakan pembaruan, tidak menghargai orisinalitas dan kreativitas, dan akhirnya melumpuhkan daya saing bangsa itu sendiri. Dampak penjiplakan memang sungguh dahsyat bagi suatu bangsa.

Bagaimana agar kita dapat menjadi bangsa yang bukan bangsa penjiplak—khususnya dalam kegiatan menulis karya tulis ilmiah? Setiap kali saya terseret dan akhirnya terbenam di pembahasan kegiatan jiplak-menjiplak dalam penulisan karya ilmiah, saya memang lebih suka untuk TIDAK membicarakan definisi menjiplak dan menunjukkan bentuk kegiatan menjiplak itu seperti apa. Saya lebih suka untuk membicarakan bagaimana—ya bagaimana—agar kita tidak menjadi seorang penjiplak atau pencuri.

Seperti ditulis oleh Rhenald Kasali—dalam artikel yang kerap saya rujuk (ibid.) tersebut—“sesungguhnya plagiat sulit dibuktikan selain oleh orang yang karyanya dijiplak orang lain”. Saya dapat merasakan terkait dengan apa yang ditulis oleh Rhenald Kasali ini. Dari mana orang lain—selain si penulis yang karyanya dijiplak dan orang yang melakukan penjiplakan tersebut—yang dapat mengetahui bahwa sebuah karya tulis itu merupakan jiplakan? Selain itu, penjiplakan—yang di bidang akademis merupakan perbuatan yang sangat tercela—tak dapat dilepaskan dari kejujuran.

Oleh karena itu, setiap kali seorang peserta pelatihan menulis yang saya ampu bertanya ihwal penjiplakan, saya senantiasa hanya mau membahasnya apabila saya diberi peluang untuk menyampaikan gagasan saya soal bagaimana agar kita tidak menjadi penjiplak. Bagaimana agar kita tidak menjadi bangsa penjiplak? Pertama, kita tentulah harus menjadi orang yang (berkehendak mau bersikap dan bertindak) jujur. Apabila persyaratan ini tidak dapat kita penuhi—yang biasanya memang tidak pernah secara ekplisit dibahas dalam tata cara menulis karya ilmiah di perguruan tinggi (maaf kalau saya salah)—persyaratan atau hal-hal yang akan saya sebut kemudian tidak akan dapat diberlakukan secara benar.

Kedua, kita harus memiliki serangkaian kegiatan berlatih menulis yang teratur dan terjaga yang terkait dengan bagaimana kita akhirnya memiliki kemampuan untuk mengeluarkan pikiran original milik kita. Meski apa itu pikiran original juga masih sulit ditetapkan, metode-metode free writing yang diusulkan oleh Natalie Goldberg dan Peter Elbow serta (kadang saya tambah dengan metode yang bernama “opening up” yang diusulkan oleh Dr. James W. Pennebaker, seorang psikolog peneliti) dapat membantu seorang akademisi untuk berlatih menulis dalam rangka untuk mengeluarkan (menulis) pikiran original-nya.

Ketiga, seseorang akan dapat terhindar dari penjiplakan apabila orang tersebut benar-benar dapat mempertanggungjawabkan materi karya tulis ilmiah yang telah diciptakannya. Mempertanggungjawabkan di sini berarti dia memang menguasai apa yang ditulisnya, sungguh-sungguh dalam menciptakan karya tulisnya, dan dirinya benar-benar terlibat di dalam kata-kata yang digunakan untuk membangun karya tulis ilmiahnya itu.

Memang, merujuk ke Rhenald Kasali lagi, tidak mudah membicarakan apakah sebuah karya tulis itu merupakan jiplakan atau bukan.Salam.[]

A�si�Z Z ng telah diciptakannya. Mempertanggungjawabkan di sini berarti dia memang menguasai apa yang ditulisnya, sungguh-sungguh dalam menciptakan karya tulisnya, dan dirinya benar-benar terlibat di dalam kata-kata yang digunakan untuk membangun karya tulis ilmiahnya itu.
Memang, merujuk ke Rhenald Kasali lagi, tidak mudah membicarakan apakah sebuah karya tulis itu merupakan jiplakan atau bukan.Salam.[]

The Original of Ideolinguistics

The Original of Ideolinguistics

The Original of Ideolinguistics

by. Zainurrahman

Introduction
This philosophy will explore the absolute relationship between human idea and their language. I never base my language philosophy on other ordinary language philosophers such as Chomsky, Foucault, and Derrida and so on. One of my reasons is that language is not separable from human mind. Saussure’s theory of lingua and parole has explored this case from many aspects. However, I didn’t find people like Saussure who explores the absolute relationship between mind and language; idea and language or what now I give the discourse a term “Ideolinguistics”.
Although I never base my thought in term of the nature of language to philosophers I mentioned above, I still agree with Determinism’s belief that human need language to think. Nevertheless, Determinism didn’t give any view of how do human think by utilizing language? This determinism’s belief is still similar as what Instrumentalism stated that human use language to express their idea. Both Determinism and Instrumentalism still have paradigm that language is a tool. Until this day, all linguists believe the same thing; that language is only a tool.
One question appears in my mind suddenly, is it true we have different language? American speaks in English, Arabian speaks with Arabic, and Indonesian speaks with Indonesian. Do we believe that English, Arabic and Indonesian are language? To my understanding, they are not language; just words. Baca lebih lanjut

Membumikan Komunikasi Surgawi di ruang kelas

Membumikan Komunikasi Surgawi di ruang kelas

Membumikan Komunikasi Surgawi di Ruang Kelas

Oleh: Eneng Elis Aisah

Dalam hidup keseharian sebagai mahluk sosial, manusia tidak pernah luput dari proses komunikasi. Konsep komunikasi berdasarkan akar kata to communicate pada dasarnya mengandung makna memberikan atau bertukar informasi, menyatakan pendapat atau perasaan dan berusaha memahami baik itu pendapat, pikiran, perasaan, bahkan pengetahuan antara satu dengan yang lainya. Dari pengertian tadi dapat digarisbawahii bahwa hakikat utama komunikasi adalah aktivitas lisan antara individu untuk saling berbagi kebaikan yang berdasarkan pada pikiran dan perasaan. Hal ini sesuai dengan firman Allah dalam surat fushilat ayat 3:

ومن احسن قولا ممن دعا الي الله وعمل صالحا وقال انني من المسلمين Baca lebih lanjut

Reading An Ex-mas Feast: to blaze, provoke and render the world

Reading An Ex-mas Feast: to blaze, provoke and render the world

By.

Eneng Elis Aisah

“Literature adds to reality, it does not simply describe it. It enriches the necessary competencies that daily life requires and provides; and in this respect, it irrigates the deserts that our lives have already become.”

(C.S. Lewis: British Scholar and Novelist. 1898-1963)

Introduction

If there is an effective media to educate human of how to live, then literature is most likely one of alternatives to be appraised. Most people boldly cry when the character of the stories they read, watch or listen died sadness or unspoken love between the characters occurred. Patriotism of Indonesian young man was burned when Rendra read Sajak Sebatang Lisong in 1977 which leaded to Maladi event. The story of the first Korean Queen Soen Deok ruled 632-647 in Peninsula Kingdom which gives the unforgettable experiences of maintaining her identity as a queen and as a woman in patriarchy culture got 42 % of Korean viewers in its fourth day broadcasting in television.

Both poem and stories create and gives powerful influence to the culture and nation. They are not only as the identity of national culture but also as the indicator of the decline or the incline of a nation (Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, 1749-1832). As both explore the value and meaning of human experiences by imaginative recreation in language (Hills, 2006) and the people which ceases to produce literature ceases to move in thought and sensibility (Elliot, 1986), then introducing, insinuating and teaching them to students are necessary and most likely precious for Indonesian future.

Narrative as one genre taught in our curriculum, is defined the sequence of stories of people /characters in time and places (Knapp & Watkins, 2005). It is central genre in all culture in almost every imaginable situation and life (Christie, 2005; Martin & Rose, 2008; Christie & Derewianka, 2008). It also structures and shapes one’s world, Hardy (1968, cited in Spilka 1977, cited in Hills 2006: 94) had concluded “we dream in narrative, daydream in narrative, remember, anticipate, hope, desire, believe, doubt, plan, revise, critics, construct, gossip, learn, hate, love by narrative” (p.31). Therefore teaching literature to students in EFL classroom is as ingratiating student selves’ life and even other’s. These activities are involved through and with language in the form of text as source of language and in the form discourse in classroom context as medium of literature discussion community.

An Ex-Mas Feast of Uwem Akpan

In September 2009, Oprah Winfrey announced Uwem Akpam ‘short story as her 63rd book club selection. Say You are One of Them is debut collection mark the first time Winfrey has ever chosen. This short story has many achievements. In 2007, it was one of five short stories by African writers chosen as finalists for the Caine Prize for African writing, won the Commonwealth Writer’s Prize for Best Book (African Region) 2009, PEN/beyond Margins Award 2009 and finalist for the Lost Angeles Times Art Seidenbaum Award fort first fiction.

The first title of this short story’s collection is An Ex-mas Feast. It is about how street boy and girls struggling for poverty of their family life in Naerobi. This story narrated clearly how Maisha, the biggest daughter, is being a “Malaya”, a whore for money paid for school fee’s of her only brother. They thoroughly realized that education is the solution for their better future. However, it is absolutely luxurious. It is only aligned with two issues; for man and for rich people. In Ex- mas Feast, hating for being a poor person and a girl, Maisha was decided to leave the family and live with a white man in Honolulu, Hawaii to earn money for Jigana’s school tuition. It was the last and awe Ex-Mas feat they celebrated together although with the most luxurious food they have ever dreamt. Deep sorrow of being leaving with one of their beloved member of family, blaming each other is the only way to express it. Feeling guilty, Jigana decided to abandon everything he had; the family and the only his most wanted dream. And finally became someone that he hated most.

Reasons of choices

Issuing poverty, gender inequality and prostitution, and struggling of young people for getting education are most likely appropriate stories to be responded by and discussed with adolescence by means of some value reasons:

Firstly, it copes with development needs of young adults. In that age, young adults need to be recognized as beings in growth in searching of self and identity. This short story perfectly describes the developmental of being a girl to being a woman. The words representing the beauty, woman and identity mostly appear in each page, for instance high heel, doll of face, funny – funny designer clothes, lingering perfume, etc. Those words characterize the need of a young girl to be existed in the women words as culture accepted it.

Secondly, Ex-Mast Feast provokes the reflective capacity of the reader. Naerobi has quite similar in the economic condition with most of Indonesian suburbs. Being a poor means struggling and suffering although it does not mean to give up to the condition and stop dreaming. Young person is the future of the family and the nation. Reflecting education is necessary condition for better future is valuable values that young adults will get through the story.

Thirdly, as The Entertainment Weekly writes “One of the years’ most exhilarating reads…Awe is the only appropriate response to Uwem Akpan’s stunning debut”, this story subconsciously makes tears falling, rips the hearth and raises empathy. It is hardly to image set in those conditions. As young and pretty girl, Marsiha only has two options to be chosen, being a street girl and raped or becoming a prostitute and meeting with rich man to lean the life. Both are dreadful option and pity life.

Fourthly, although this story discusses the reasons of Masha being a prostitute providing with logical arguments, it is most likely deceitful to conclude that Masha’s decision is right and true. There are many solutions available to be found in the discussion between readers in classroom. Cultural, religious and ethic values of students will determine the evidence of judging the truthiness of the story in their world.

Moreover, comparing with language and culture benefits of teaching literature in classroom as listed by Parkinson and Thomas (2000), An Ex-mast Feat provides cultural enrichment. As culture is the aspect of social concerned with the meanings which come about in and through social relation among people, classes, institution, structures and things like literature (Thwaites, Davis & Mules, 1994), then in reading An Ex-mast Feast, students learn to interpret character action’s and cultural setting of Naerobi within large frameworks of words or activity systems constituted by cultural or ideological forces (Engestrom, 1987 cited in Galda & Beach, 2001). It is easily to find the cultural value of Naerobi in the text. The terms used such as Ex-mas Feast, kabire, baba and mama adds cultural experiences of the reader.

Moreover, the cultural enrichment of this short story provided offers rhetoric. The writer brilliantly changes the use of local English in dialogue to formal English in narrative sequenced. “Me am not going to school” (page 14) is the commonest expression uttered by character. However, the story is vividly narrated the setting of story through vocabularies. Collie and Slater said that reading is substantial and contextualized body of text, reader may gain familiarity with many features of the written language which broaden and enrich their own writing skill (1987 cited in Parkinson and Thomas, 2004; 9). Susan Straight, Washington Post editors comments it “is not merely the subject that makes Akpan’s writing so astonishing, translucent, and horrifying at all at once; it is his talent with metaphor and imaginary, his immersion into character and places”.

The preeminent part of this story is training of the mental of the reader. Mental training is one of the benefits of teaching literature. Leavis (1943) discussed literature trains, in a way not other discipline can, intelligence and sensibility together cultivating sensitiveness and precision of response and a delicate integrity of intelligence (cited in Parkinson and Thomas, 2004: 9). Taking the setting in war-torn countries and the gritty lives of African children, this story blazes humanity, persists horror and relentless without moral queasiness of voyeurism. Chris Abani, author of GraceLand and The Virgin of Flames said “Uwem Akpan write with a political fierceness and humanity so full of compassion it might just change the world”. Of course, this story confidently will revolutionize the paradigm of Indonesian students in viewing their and other world.

Provoking affective, interpretive and Critical capacity

As means of encouraging students’ response with affective, interpretive and critical capacity, the way of assessing literature engages crucial factors in teaching literature. Parkinson and Thomas (2004) listed some potentially assessable outcomes of teaching literature:

Affective outcome

Affective relates to emotional expression associated with ideas, thing or action. It most likely deals with feeling, attitude, or value. In teaching literature, affective outcome may go beyond to an education of the sensibilities, an enhanced awareness and understanding of characters and their own emotional life (Parkinson and Thomas, 2004). It is most likely important than facilitating students with cognitive outcomes. The affective may focus on the arising of students’ self confidence and self-image within and through the characters of the story. Broadly, it may precede to a desire for further success and to positive attitudes to school and society in general (Thomas and Perkinson, 2004:143).

In developing affective sense of students in reading An Ex-mas Feast, the questions of the assessment may appear in the form of open-ended questions as follow:

After reading the text, observe the attitudes of each character!
In first paragraph, the writer narrated that Maisha had been behaving like a cat that was going feral (line 3). Determine the reason of using cat as metaphor of Maisha’s behavior at home!
To raise the family, Mama often asked their children to be a beggar in the street, what do you think it is supposed to be? Is Baba working? Give your response!
Certainly within the text, you will find many cultural values in which different from your own culture. Crystallize their cultural values differs with yours!
Albeit many diverse values, you may find some universal values which appear in the text. Do you think what the universal values of the text insisted by the writer? Elaborate!
Learning how to learn

There is an interesting proverb from Confucian to bear in mind “If you give a man a fish, you feed him for a day; if you teach a man to fish you feed him for a lifetime”. Giving a man fish is not helping him to face a complicated life. Instead it is teaching him how to be a beggar for the rest of his life. In the learning context, just transferring knowledge to students in the class is like giving a fish for them. They need to know how to learn by their selves for their life.

Learning to learn is from the assumption that education is what remains when one has forgotten all one ever learned (Parkinson and Thomas, 2004). Students will capture knowledge that they need and fit with their social context. According to Fink (2003) learning to learn involves aspects of both the cognitive and affective domains. Significant learning to learn is characterized by “some kind of lasting change that is important in terms of the learner’s life” (Fink 2003).

Relating to An Ex-mas Feast, the questions may appear to assess this outcomes are:

Based on your intention, how does the family value education! And how about yours, How you value education? What will you do to cope with your dream?
Learn how Jigana finally decide not to continue his study!
Supposed you are in the same boat with Misha, What will you do to help your brother to educate him self! Relate your opinion with your believe and cultural values!
Literature-related knowledge and skills

As mention above, literature gives not only moral values but also good model of language, and language it self. In describing this outcome, Parkinson and Thomas (2004) underline three subheadings:

a. Factual Knowledge
It includes knowledge and understanding of basic facts, ideas, and perspectives. It also includes understanding the conceptual structure of a subject:

The questions to develop this knowledge are:

What is Ex-mas Feast?
What is Kabire?
How many characters are in the story?
What is the profession of Jigana’s father?
b. Delicate Sensibility
As discussed above, mental training is one of the benefits of teaching literature. Leavis (1943) discussed literature trains, in a way not other discipline can, intelligence and sensibility together cultivating sensitiveness and precision of response and a delicate integrity of intelligence (cited in Parkinson and Thomas, 2004: 9).

Therefore to cope with this outcome, the assessments are as follow:

Can you feel and describe Jigana’s feeling in the story?
Do you think Mama and Baba love Misha? Elaborate!
c. Skills of Literary Criticism
Critical literacy is the concept that the social, political, cultural, and linguistic background of both the author and the reader must be considered and acknowledged (Comber & Simpson, 2001; Cope & Kalantzis, 1999 cited in Hertzbeg at http://www.readingonline.com ). This concept has influenced pedagogical approaches taken in reading education in recent years. Developing students’ critical thinking is central to helping them achieve critical literacy.

To provide literary criticism, leading questions or format of Socratic questions can be used by teachers to encourage learners in criticizing the story:

Why did Misha go to Honolulu?
Why did that ex-mas become the worst time for Machokos family?
Do you think what the strengths and the weakness of the story?
What is the writer’s intention of telling this story?
d. Language competencies
As authentic resources of English language, this story provides rich language competences. In this story, writer provides rich contextual vocabularies, coherence and cohesion structure.

a) General and miscellaneous

To assess this outcome, the questions are:

Pay attention to the dialogue, List some formal and informal English in the dialogue!
This is narrated vividly with using of many adverbial; write some adverbs that describe the awe situation!
b) Skills of reading

What is the main idea of 4th paragraph?
What does the underline word refer to?
A clap of thunder woke Mama. She got up sluggishly, pulling her hands away from Maisha’s trunk, which she had held on to while she slept. It was navy blue, with brass linings and rollers, and it took up a good part of our living space

c) Increasing functional range

Read part of the story below. Decide what the functions of underlined expressions are!
I quickly covered the trunk with rags and reached into my pocket,
tightening my grip around the rusty penknife I carried about.
Mama and I stood by the door. Bwana Wako wore his trousers
belted across his forehead; the legs, fl ailing behind him, were tied in
knots and stuffed with ugali fl our, which he must have gotten from
a street party. Cecilia wore only her jacket and her rain boots.
“Ah, Mama Jigana-ni Ex- mas!” the husband said. “Forget the
money. Happee Ex- mas!”
“We hear Jigana is going to school,” the wife said.
“Who told you?” Mama said warily. “Me, I don’t like rumors.”
They turned to me. “Happee to resume school, boy?”
“Me am not going to school,” I lied, to spare my tuition money.
“Kai, like mama like son!” the wife said. “You must to know
you are the hope of your family.”
“Mama Jigana, listen,” the man said. “Maisha came to us last
week. Good, responsible gal. She begged us to let bygone be
bygone so Jigana can go to school. We say forget the money — our
Ex- mas gift to your family.”
“You must to go far with education, Jigana,” the wife said,
handing me a new pen and pencil. “Mpaka university!”
Mama laughed, jumping into the flooded alley. She hugged
Rendering the world

Above assessment, generally is intended to render the world increasing sensitivity through and within language. This section discusses the interpretation of the assessment with elaborating the intended skill or value to cope with broader outcomes.

To be able to change the students’ paradigm of looking world phenomenon and having self-reflective through literature, the students, firstly, may have sufficient language competence. The abilities to recognize the formal and informal expression, meaning of words, lexical cohesion and coherence, and the function of the expression in the text are important to gain factual knowledge and able to response literary critically.

Having the ability to respond literary critically facilitates to develop learner to learn how to learn. Learning to learn is able students with self-reflective. Students may familiarize with the way of they learn and other’s. In further, students know their own, cultural, national and world values.

After knowing them selves, students are intended to be sensitive with other. Understanding other country values, knowing the way of other facing their life, solving problems and coping with the dream they have provided in the affective outcome assessment help students to shift paradigm of their selves and finally have the intention to live in a better world. Therefore, Literature is beyond, beyond of language, culture and religion. It is an echo of the life.

Bibliography
(n.d.). Retrieved March 12, 2010, from http://www.readingonline.com

(n.d.). Retrieved March 13, 2010, from http://www.uwemakpan.com/praise

(2009, September). Retrieved March 13, 2010, from http://www.oprah.com/oprahbooksclub/author-Uwem-Akpans-Biografy

Christie, F. (2005). Language Education in the Primary Years. Sydney: UNSW Press Book.

Christie, F., & Derewianka, B. (2008). School Discourse. London: Continum.

Fairclough, N. (1989). Language and Power. England: Longman Group UK Limited.

Galda, L., & Beach, R. (2001). Response to Literature as a Cultural activity. Reading Research Quarterly , 64-73.

Halliday, M. (1994). An Introduction to Fuctional Grammar. Edward Arnold: New York.

Hill, S. (2006). Developing Early Literacy. Australia: Eleanor Curtain Publishing.

Knapp, P., & Watkins, M. (2009). Genre, Text, Grammar: Technologies for Teaching and Assesing Writing. Sydney: UNSW Press Book.

Martin, J., & Rose, D. (2008). Genre Relation: Mapping Culture. London: Equinox Publishing Ltd.

Parkinson, B., & Thomas, H. (2004). Teaching Literature in a Second Language. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
(credit to:http://englisah.wordpress.com/2010/09/20/65/)

Development of English Language Teaching Syllabus in Indonesia

Development of English Language Teaching Syllabus in Indonesia

By: Eneng Elis Aisah*

(English Teacher in MTs. Negeri Ciranjang, Cianjur, West Java ,Indonesia)

Introduction

Many critiques correspond to government due to curriculum change over minister replacement (http://www.suaramerdeka.com/harian/0412/30/nas09.htm, December 30, 2004, retrieved at April 8, 2009). Curriculum, in school context “referring to the whole body of knowledge that children acquire in school” (Richard 2001:39), is influenced by the development of paradigm of philosophy (Zais 1976), needs and situational analysis (Richard 2001) and also ‘Global Mega trend’ (Pezzoli & Howe 2001). Therefore the changing of curriculum, followed by the development of syllabus as of means selecting, organizing, assessing content (Brown cited by Sundayana 2004) and goal of curriculum activities in the classroom context (Huda, 1999) holds crucial issues in our education.

This writing is chapter report from a book entitled “Language Learning and Teaching” written by Nuril Huda in 1999. This report discusses the development of English language Teaching Syllabus in Indonesia from 1984 up to 2006. This is divided into four sections. The first will discuss syllabus of 1984 curriculum. The second section will introduce some discussion of syllabus of 1994 curriculum. The next section will be shown syllabus of Competence based curriculum (2004) and finally the latest curriculum – School based curriculum –will be discussed.

The 1984 English Language Teaching (ELT) Syllabus

The 1984 curriculum is based on the amendment of 1975 curriculum (Kasihani cited by Emilia 2005). The education is ruled in UUPP (Undang-Undang Pendidikan dan Pengajaran) No. 4, 1950. The goal of education is membentuk manusia susila jang tjakap dan warga Negara jang demokratis serta bertanggung-djawab tentang kesedjahteraan masyarakat dan tanah air (Chapter II, article 3). As the situational needs, in Pidato Kenegaraan at August 16, 1984 the president of Indonesia address the goal of education development in Repelita III is to improve quality of education, learning opportunity, relevance of education and development, efficiency and effectively of management of education by training and curriculum improvement for fulfilling development skillful labor (Repelita III Chapter XVII). Therefore, due to the needs and situational analysis, the changing of curriculum is necessary.

Although English is placed as the foreign language in Indonesia, the competency of learner in this subject is very important to overcome the national development goal. So, the 1984 English syllabus intends to build the ability of learner in communicating, well-known by Communicative approach/communicative language teaching (Huda 1999: 118).

Communicative approach (CA) was very popular in 1960s-1979s. It assumes that if the students are involved in meaning focused communicative task, then ‘language learning will take care of itself’ (Allwright 1979) (Harmer 2007: 69). The goal of CA is communicative competence in which instruction needs to be aimed in organizational, pragmatic and strategic competence (Azies & Alwasilah 2000; http://www.onlineenglish.net). Moreover Richard argued that communicative competence referred to “the capacity to use language appropriately in communication based on the setting, the roles of the participants, and the nature of transaction” (2001:36). In other words, grammar and the use of language hold important aspects in promoting communication.

Syllabus as aims to simplify and rationalize the curriculum (Richard, 2001: 42) influences the selecting of material and the method used in classroom. Huda (1999:118) summarizes the components of 1984 English syllabus as structure, reading, vocabulary, dialogues, writing, song and game (SMP), and spelling, pronunciation and poem (SMU). Here the structure, as mention earlier, still is placed as important aspect to be able to communicative well.

The content of the book shows that the syllabus design is structural syllabus which main focus is structure (Krahne and Richard). A major characteristic of structural syllabus is “synthetic” (Wilkins, 1976; Yalden 1983 cited by Krahne 1987:16) that derives from assumption that learner can synthesize the material from analyzing rule and patterns to construct information. Reading a text is assigned as the context of the use of grammatical rule.

However, Krahnke states that the structural syllabus usually associated with Grammar traditional method (GTM), audioligualism and silent way (1987: 17; see also Celci-Murcia 1991), whereas CA usually used the notional/functional syllabus (Krahne 1987: 29, Richard 37; Dubin and Olshtain, 1986). Obviously it demonstrates contradiction between philosophical principle perceived by government and text book used by teachers in class.

The 1994 English Syllabus

The 1994 English syllabus emerged as the approval of UU Sistem Pendidikan Nasional No. 2, 1989. The goal of national education is to develop mentality of nation which is imbued with, faith, moral, science and skill, and also to increase responsibility as nation (chapter II, article 4). In addition, in chapter IX, article 37 states that curriculum development in every school level is based the development of learner and situational needs, national development, and development of science, technology and art. Therefore for the need of globalization and 21st century, the goal of ELT addresses to the development of communicative competence in English, including reading, listening, speaking and writing skill simultaneously by mastering 1,000 words for Lower secondary level and 2,500 words for higher secondary level (Depdikbud 1993; Huda 1999: 119).

The approach of teaching is communicative/meaningful approach which is broader than previous syllabus (see Depdikbud 1993; Huda 1990; Suplemen GBPP 1994, 2000; Kasinhani cited by Emilia 2005). Reading, as mention earlier in the goal, and mastering vocabulary still hold important skill to communicate (Huda’s survey at 1990). Reading is represented in some themes. Theme is the context of communication (Suplemen 1994, 2000) not as material which is learned by students. Grammatical rule is used and presented to express meaning and functional skills (Depdikbud 1993; Suplemen 1994, 2000). Learning process is focused on learner-centered orientation (Depdikbud 1993; Ernawan & Hardjomarso, 1996).

The example shows that the first column is TPU (learning objective). Richard called syllabus by emphasizing “the essential skills, knowledge, and attitudes” is called competence- based syllabus (159). Moreover, Ernawan & Hardjomarso called it “Thematic” syllabus (1996). Krahnke and Richard called thematic syllabus as topical/content based-syllabus (See Krahne 1987:66, Richard 2001; 157). However, the 1994 ELT syllabus is as integration of functional, situational, skill and structural (Suplemen 1994, 2000). In other words “Variable focus design”, which emphasizes to gradual change of focus of organizing principle, affects the design of syllabus (Huda, 1999: 123). However, this ELT regards fails to overcome the national goal, particularly to respect multicultural values (Lie, 2000). Hence, the improvement of our ELT syllabus is indeed needed.

The 2004 ELT Syllabus

The 2004 ELT Syllabus emerges after a year of launching of Undang-Undang Sistem Pendidikan Nasional (UU. SISDIKNAS) No. 20, 2003. The aim of national education is to develop learners’ potentials so that they become persons imbued with human values who are faithful and possess morals and noble character; healthy, knowledgeable, competent, creative, independent; and as citizens, are democratic and responsible (Chapter II, Article 3). Moreover, in chapter II, article 3 states that the development of curriculum is influenced by the development of paradigm of philosophy, learning and language theory. The emerging of post-structural paradigm in philosophy movement influences the theory of how language is learnt and taught which views learning language as medium to deconstruct social life (Connole, Smith & Wiseman 1993; Alawasilah 2008).

Government underlines some characteristics of this curriculum. The first characteristic is based on “competence” of Celce-Murcia, Dornyei dan Thurrell (1995) in which consists of discourse competence supported by linguistic competence, actional, socio-cultural competence and strategic competence. The second is the systemic functional linguistics (SFL) of Halliday (1978) which has ideational, interpersonal and textual function including text, co-text and context. The third is ‘level of competence’ (Wells 1987) whereas the junior higher learner intends to reach functional level; in other hand, senior high learner intends to reach informational level. The last is the development of language competence from spoken to written language. The goal of ELT for SMP focuses on written spoken language/bahasa lisan yang ditulis with simple sentences such as in descriptive, narrative, spoof/recount, procedure, report, and anecdote. However, it, in SMU, focuses on written language based on more advance genre type such as descriptive, narrative, spoof/recount, procedure, report, news item, anecdote, exposition explanation, discussion, commentary, and review.

The syllabus is skill-based (Krahnke, 1987: 50) in more traditional way of viewing is called competence-based instruction (Richard 2001: 159; Krahnke, 1987: 50) in which competence is viewed as similar as “behavioral objectives defined as what a learner is able to do as a result instruction” (Krahnke 1987:50).

Principles of developing the 2004 competence-based syllabus are scientific based, learner’s needs, systematic, relevant, consistent and adequate (Dekdasmen 2004:11). Furthermore, there are six steps of developing this syllabus; (1) writing subject identity, (2) formulating standard competence, (3) deciding basic competence, (4) deciding material and its explanation, (5) deciding learning strategy, and (6) deciding time allocation and resources (Dikdasmen 2004: 25). However, this curriculum is no longer used. In 2006, government launched School -based curriculum (KTSP). For some instances, KTSP is the development of the 2004 curriculum.

The 2006 ELT / Kurikulum Tingkat Satuan Pendidikan (KTSP) Syllabus

The spirit of decentralization, as showed by Act of local Autonomy No. 22, 1999 revised by Act of Local Autonomy No. 32, 2004 and hand in hand with Act No. 20, 2003, is seen in the 2006 curriculum. In this regard, education is not merely central government’s responsibility; local government also has responsibility in managing and funding education. Therefore, kurikulum Tingkat Satuan Pendidikan (KTSP) is developed from Standard of content by schools based on their context and potential.

Although KTSP varies between one and other schools, Government gives some regulations stated in Governmental Regulation (PP) No. 19, 2005 concerning National Standard of Education (SNP) at May 16, 2005. It consists of: standard of content, standard competence of graduate, standard of process, standard of educator and administrator, standard of medium and infrastructure, standard of funding, and standard of assessment. Furthermore, all standards are ruled by PERMENDIKNAS.

English, as stated in standard of content (PERMENDIKNAS No. 22, 2006), is learned at elementary two hours in a week (as Mulok for class IV, V and VI), at junior and senior high school four hours in a week except for language program in SMU – five hours in a week. Moreover, the standard competence of graduate of English (PERMEN No. 23, 2006) for each level is communicative competence in the form of spoken of language accompanying action for elementary school, in the form of spoken and written for achieving functional literacy level for junior high school and in the form of spoken and written for achieving informational literacy level for senior high school.

From the goal and scope above, we can see that every school level is simultaneously ‘variable focus design’ which emphasizes to gradual change (Huda, 1999).

The syllabus, in this curriculum, perceived as the plan of learning process with lesson plan- RPP (PP No. 19, 2005, chapter IV, article 20; PERMEN No. 41, 2007) which consists of standard of competence, basic standard, material, learning activities, learning indicators, assessment, time allocation and resources (PP No. 19, 2005, Chapter IV, article 20; Depdiknas, 2006; PERMEN No. 41, 2007). The syllabus is developed by a teacher or group teacher supervised by department of education based on standard of content, standard competence of graduate and guiding of arrangement of school-based curriculum (Appendix of PERMEN No. 41, 2007).

Furthermore, principles of developing syllabus are scientific, relevance, systematic, consistence, adequate, actual, contextual, flexible and comprehensive (Depdiknas, 2006). Moreover, the steps of development are as follow: (1) investigating and deciding Standard of competence, (2) investigating and deciding basic competence, (3) identifying main topic/material, (4) developing learning activity, (5) formulating indicators, (6) deciding kind of assessment, (7) deciding time allocation, and (8) deciding resources (Appendix of PERMEN No. 41, 2007).

Basically, the 2006 syllabus is as similar with the 2004 ELT syllabus. The difference is in deciding in indicators, theme and in teaching approach. The 2006 does not focus on theme and indicators are decided based on the necessity of learner’s need and ability. Moreover, the 2006 emphasizes on learning process as highlight in lesson plan and as mentioned in PP No. 19, 2005, Chapter IV, article 19, verses 1 “learning process is performed interactive, inspirable, fun, challenging, motivating learners to involve actively, and given adequate space for initiative, creativity, autonomy based on learners’ potential, interest, psychical and psychological development” however, 2004 which greatly influenced with Systemic functional Linguistics of Halliday (1987).

Conclusion

The syllabus in language teaching and learning indeed depends on how the organization of content (Krahnke 1987: 1). It can be a table of content or the essence of the course (Parker & Harris 2002; http://www.infed.org/biblio/b-curric.htm). However, some syllabus design relates to language teaching approach; structural syllabus originates GTM, notional and functional syllabus emerges as supporting of CLT and situational syllabus relates to the notion of ESP, but not all (Krahnke 1987). Krahnke mentions skill/competence based, content-based and integrated- based syllabi do not relate to any kind of language approach (1987:50). Rather it is influenced by; “(1) goal and objective of the overall instructional program, (2) Instructional resources available, (3) teachers factors, and (4) students factors” (Sundayana, 2004).

However, the development of ELT syllabus in Indonesia from structural-based (The 1984 syllabus), Thematic-based (The 1994 syllabus), to competence/skill – based (The 2004 and 2006 syllabus) is not followed by the changing of approaching used by teacher in classroom. Teachers tend to teach more grammar and structure separately and explicitly out of their communicative competence (As Hikam as cited by Emilia 2005). Teachers’ habitual and their previous experiences influence the way of their teaching. Therefore, the government’s policy to certify teacher is very crucial in developing ELT syllabus and further for ‘providing effective teaching’ as part of curriculum development (Richards, 2001).

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(Credit to:http://englisah.wordpress.com/2009/05/11/development-of-english-language-teaching-syllabus-in-indonesia/)

Pendekatan Komunikatif

Pendekatan Komunikatif
1. Latar Belakang
Sudah pernahkah Anda mengenal pendekatan komunikatif? Atau bahkan Anda sudah menerapkannya dalam pembelajaran bahasa Indonesia di SMP tempat Anda mengajar? Pendekatan komunikatif sebenarnya bukan hal yang baru bagi Anda. (Bahkan menurut para pakar, tak ada yang baru di bawah kolong langit ini.) Sejak Kurikulum ’94 diluncurkan, pembelajaran bahasa sudah mencanangkan pendekatan komunikatif itu. Namun, kenyataannya banyak guru, menurut penelitian, masih bertahan pada pendekatan lama, yakni tata bahasa terjemahan atau pendekatan audiolingual. Mengapa demikian? Mungkin masih banyak guru yang belum paham benar “binatang” macam apakah pendekatan komunikatif itu? Kalau ada yang sudah tahu, belum tentu juga menerapkannya sebab sesuatu yang baru itu sering mendapatkan banyak tantangan. Di Indonesia, pendekatan komunikatif baru diluncurkan pada tahun ‘90-an. Padahal, di negara asalnya pendekatan itu sudah lama diterapkan. Oleh sebab itu, ada baiknya Anda melihat barang sejenak perjalanan pendekatan komunikatif dalam bagian berikut ini. Baca lebih lanjut

METODE PENGAJARAN BAHASA INGGRIS

METODE PENGAJARAN BAHASA INGGRIS

METODE PENGAJARAN BAHASA INGGRIS
1. Metode Langsung (Direct Method)
Direct artinya langsung. Direct method atau model langsung yaitu suatu cara mengajikan materi pelajaran bahasa asing di mana guru langsung menggunakan bahasa asing tersebut sebagai bahasa pengantar, dan tanpa menggunakan bahasa anak didik sedikit pun dalam mengajar. Jika ada suatu kata-kata yang sulit dimengerti oleh anak didik, maka guru dapat mengartikan dengan menggunakan alat peraga, mendemontstrasikan, menggambarkan dan lain-lain.
Metode ini berpijak dari pemahaman bahwa pengajaran bahasa asing tidak sama halnya dengan mengajar ilmu pasti alam. Jika mengajar ilmu pasti, siswa dituntut agar dapat menghafal rumus-rumus tertentu, berpikir, dan mengingat, maka dalam pengajaran bahasa, siswa/anak didik dilatih praktek langsunng mengucapkan kata-kata atau kalimat-kalimat tertentu. Sekalipun kata-kata atau kalimat tersebut mula-mula masih asing dan tidak dipahami anak didik, namun sedikit demi sedikit kata-kata dan kalimat itu akan dapat diucapkan dan dapat pula mengartikannya.
Demikian halnya kalau kita perhatikan seorang ibu mengajarkan basah kepada anak-anaknya langsung dengan mengajarinya, menuntunnya mengucapkan kata per kata, kalimat per kalimat dan anaknya menurutinya meskipun masih terihat lucu. Misalnya ibunya mengajar “Ayah” maka anak tersebut menyebut “Aah” dan seterusnya. Namun lama kelamaan si anak mengenali kata-kata itu dan akhirnya ia mengerti pula maksudnya
Pada prinsipnya metode langsung (direct method) ini sangat utama dalam mengajar bahasa asing, karena melalui metode ini siswa dapat langsung melatih kemahiran lidah tanpa menggunakan bahasa ibu (bahasa lingkungannya). Meskipun pada mulanya terlihat sulit anak didik untuk menuirukannya, tapi adalah menarik bagi anak didik. Baca lebih lanjut